The University of Illinois blog “the Bulletin” has an article on the development of Goss’s Wilt in corn after storm damage (high winds and/or hail).
Sometimes you may not notice the initial damage and want to figure out when it occurred. There are a few sources out there for doing this.
One way is to look at the storm damage reports from the Storm Prediction Center. Each day they report damaging winds, hail, and tornado damage across the US. Just click on the map for “today” and across the top there are links to go back and forth.
Another source for wind data is the nearby airport. Almost every airport with commercial traffic has an automated weather station on site. You can find the nearest airport data by going to weather.gov and ask for the forecast for your site. If you ask for more details, you will eventually see data from the nearby airport including the history of the last 3 days.
Finally, the Illinois State Water Survey operates 19 sites around the state that collect wind data along with soil temperatures, solar radiation, etc. You can view that information here.
There is some information on the hail climatology of Illinois and the US. I posted a few resources on my web page on hail. One of the world’s leading experts on hail, Stan Changnon, worked at the Water Survey and wrote a considerable amount on the subject.